Undergraduate Led Student Interviews

In a world where people are often reduced to numbers or consumers of a product, sitting down with students, asking them about their personal experience with writing and English 1101, and looking deeper into the words they use to describe that experience is refreshing.** I had never really conducted interviews before, but after reading The Meaningful Writing Project by Eodice, Geller, and Lerner, I had a general idea of how student-led interviews worked. Most of the questions Dr. Rifenburg and I came up with were open-ended enough that the students gave thoughtful responses to them, and several of the students were even excited to give their input and opinions. The concept of the interviews being led by undergraduates, like myself, seemed to work well. During the interviews the students were relaxed, and off the record we chatted about school and life.

Being that this was my first time interviewing people in this setting, there are some things I wish I could have done differently. After listening to the recordings of the interviews I realized that at times I sounded stiff and forced when I transitioned to a different question. In the future I would like to work on that and make the interview more like a natural conversation rather than an interview. I also noticed when transcribing the interviews that there were answers to questions that practically begged for a follow-up question that I didn’t ask. These things are frustrating, but I’m still learning. 

Overall I really enjoyed just being a part of this process. I think listening to students’ thoughts on their education is valuable, and I am excited to learn more about the data we find in the words of the students’ interviews.

**post by University of North Georgia undergraduate researcher and writing & publication major Emily Pridgen


Students as partners & curricular redesign

It’s rad when an international conference lands in one’s back-yard. Travel is fun. But costly. And when we are already working on a tight budget–just getting our poster printed was a challenge–then hitting up an international conference without getting on an airplane or adjusting to time zones is pretty nice.

We presented our in-progress work at the International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (ISSOTL), a wonderful, annual conference dedicated to the wide-ranging work our colleagues around the world undertake related to teaching and learning.

Specifically, we designed a poster on why it’s important to use undergrads in research about undergrads’ experience with a new curriculum. The design aesthetic and layout of our poster seemed to be a big hit. We borrowed the template from a tab titled “Better Poster Template” on OSF.io. Thanks to NPR for doing on a story on this poster design, which we discovered when browsing Twitter.



We presented Thursday evening at the Marriott Marquis. We presented in a conference room filled with other impressive posters and with even more impressive people. During our presentation we had several solid conversations about why our work is relevant and what we hope to achieve. 

Our next steps are to code our interview transcripts. The newly published (and open access!) book Coding Streams of Language: Techniques for the Systematic Coding of Text, Talk, and Other Verbal Data will be super helpful. As will Johnny Saldaña’s The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers.

We brought another undergraduate researcher onto our team. Samantha Velasquez will begin student interviews this month.

The themes that emerge from Michael and Emily’s coding session will inform the coding session Michael and Sam will run with her interview transcripts.

We believe in this work because the undergraduate students that Emily and Sam are interviewing are very receptive. They seem to feel comfortable and able to answer the questions honestly without pressure or fear of offending those in charge of their grade. Involving Emily in the coding process may also help with translating or understanding not just the words that were said, but how they were said and the context behind them.

–co-authored by Emily & Michael


Oświęcim, Poland

At Auschwitz I.

It was quiet. So quiet.

The crunch of gravel under the shoes and shoes and shoes of sweaty tourists.

‘Here is the gate they passed under, the barbed wife fence, times 2, and the guard tower.’

‘Here is block something where prisoners lived.’

My mind cannot remember the block number.

‘Here are the shoes, hair, combs, kitchen items, suit cases.’

DR. HAROLD AMUNDS stenciled on one.

The hot sun and the green, green grass. The trees giving shade.

Only the sound of gravel crunching. The guide talking through a headset to us.

Lovers whispering to each other and holding hands. Scandals and sundresses and tanktops.

And then I looked. For birds, a butterfly, a bug. Life not human.


Just still hot air.

‘Zyklon B canisters. You can take pictures.’

‘Here is the crematorium and the gas chamber. See the square holes in the ceiling?’

Now two black crows cawing at each other on a black chimney. Then gone.

At Auschwitz II-Birkenau.

A wife takes a picture of a husband in front of the main gate. Why?

Much larger space. Most buildings destroyed by Germans. A large, large field.

Teens scroll WhatsApp sitting in the shade of a railcar that carried death. One snickers.

And then a butterfly. Just one. Falling, rising, falling in the wind in the hot field in Poland.

Through a barbed wire fence it went, confidently into a place we can no longer go.



Wroclaw, Poland

I’m sitting alone at a hotel bar in Wroclaw, Poland. (what wonderful narrative doesn’t start with that line?). The bar tender is mixing me up an Old Fashioned, the electric red light behind the bar shining through his blond hair.

I’m three days in country, stabilized my sleep and eating routine.

I’ve found a walking route around the town. Each day, I expand my route just ever so slightly, pushing the physical boundaries of that which I am familiar. I walk a bit further every day, making mental notes of landmarks so bring me home again. I walk without a map. Just my phone and a small wad of cash and room key. Like a little kid, I become more ambitious with comfort. Day one takes me to the grocery store for food; day two takes me to a restaurant; day three takes me to small hole inside a tunnel where two people toast pizzas to order. I smile and say hello and point and smile and smile. We make do.

The city center of Wroclaw is beautiful, easy, friendly. Families and couples and strollers and hand-holding. Vendors shout their items; small kids run around pushing roses in the faces of couples who look away. Moms watch their kids play in sand boxes dumped in the city center beneath the shadowy wings of 400-year old churches. Vegan hipster burger joints find a home at the bottom floor of building erected before the U.S. had her first birthday. Hard Rock Café stands and finds patrons. Somehow.

I talk with a make who runs a screen-printing business. His design adorns a gray backpack I buy my son. Four raccoons—a mom, dad, and two babies. The text reads something like “family love,” it’s an idiom, a Polish play on words that doesn’t come across well in English. I ask if the love is the love I have for my wife or the love I have for me son. No need for my kid to have an erotic bag. The man laughs and says both. I smile and hand over 50 pln, about $20.

I walk further, and the tourist beauty of the city center gives way to the rest of Wroclaw, the rougher part that doesn’t make it into the guidebooks and the Rick Steves’s travel show on PBS. The cobblestone gives way to broken gray pavement, gray dust floating just above the pavement, brazen weeds stretching from between pavement breaks, stretching and stretching despite the constant foot traffic. Cars parked bumper to bumper on the sidewalk. Overhead, laundry lines stretch across balconies, old women peek outside, older men chew on dangling cigarettes. Old posters advertising something that happened some time ago break and peel and fade off of or into the walls, telephone poles. A dog stops, empties a load, limps on. The smell brings me back to the streets of St. Petersburg, Russia. The movement of the street. The feel of the people’s faces as they move past brings me back to Russia. A capital 1500 km away through Latvia, Lithuania.

But it feels closer.

Polish is based on the Latin alphabet. A lot of it. But the language offers a cognitive overload for me. The letters, when all strung together into a word, don’t stick. I make up short cuts in my mind to remember street names. I know a café with cat décor sits at the intersection of Kuz and Nice. Both streets come with about 15 more letters, all constants. I know the Vinyl Café is behind the large glass foundation. Just take the alley and turn right. Street name? Don’t have a clue.

Like my wanderings in Athens, overwhelmed by the tangled streets with names in Greek, I wander by feel, visual landmarks, confidence that four left turns equal a rough circle. Here in Wroclaw, the Oder River keeps me centered. No centering in the mess of Athens.

The military van picked me up at 0845 hours today. I was taken to the Military University of Land Forces, given a tour of the grounds, dropped into a classroom of language instructors to give a 60-minute workshop—topic? TBD by me.

We talked assignment design; we talked TILT principles of purpose, task, and criteria for success. We talked metacognition. It went well. Without the aid of A/C, the room grew warm. The open windows let in a small breeze and sound of gun fire from the shooting range. The Colonel, my point of contact, lingered in the door way.

As the van dropped my off at my hotel, the cadet, who has served as my informal tour guide, offered a word of wisdom. Just walk under the street lights night, he told me, half turning in his seat up front to face me in the back. Poland has people who like to make trouble; they wear tracksuits. The door opened; I got out.

Went back to my room. Watched John Wick 2 on Netflix. And fell asleep. It was 1300 hours, but I was done.



Hofstra University talk

In mid-April, I spent two wonderful days at Hofstra University in Hempstead, NY. With a gracious invitation from Ethna Lay, I came to talk with faculty, staff, and students about my recent book The Embodied Playbook: Writing Practices of Student-Athletes (Utah State UP, 2018).  With a full room–mostly (!) of undergraduate students–I lead people through my work with the men’s basketball team at the University of North Georgia and then answered some smart/tough questions from the audience. Shout-out to the student who works in the writing center and asked how my work on student-athletes might extend to working with writing from various other extracurricular backgrounds in the writing center!



(A view of Mason Hall, Hofstra University)

Following my talk, Andrea Efthymiou, director of the Writing Center, brought me to sit in on her writing tutoring class where we talked about qualitative research, student-athlete policy, and, of course, Foucault.

Below are images from my talk–courtesy of Ethna in the front row snapping pics on her iPhone.


A Four-Star U.S. Army General & AAC&U

I’m in a conference room in downtown ATL with scores of univ & college presidents—former and current. A four-star U.S. Army General is at the dais.

I got a nod of approval from the good people at the AAC&U registration booth to sit in a session for presidents and foundation leaders. Session title: “Civic Engagement and Student Success.” Two names on the program: Phoebe Haddon, the Chancellor at Rutgers University-Camden. Stephen Townsend, Commanding General of U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, United States Army. One is a Ph.D. One is a General. Two rad—but very different—titles.

General pours water for Chancellor. Asks where Chancellor wants to sit. General comes with three aides who circle and check phones. General makes a joke about people sitting in the back row—like a Baptist Church he says. It’s easier to slip out, he says. Chancellor laughs.

Moderator talks into the mic. It’s Dr. Ashley Finley, Senior Advisor to the [AAC&U] President and Secretary to the Board. She tries to start the session. Audience doesn’t listen. The audience of presidents and foundation leaders keep standing and talking.  How does one hush up this audience?

It’s room of about 50 people. And me in the front, right row.

Finley gets the audience to sit. And listen. Finley speaks on the importance of commitment to civic engagement as manifested in various institutional mission statements.

Civic missions for the enduring success of our students. Finley asks, How do we make the case of what we do while holding onto an unwavering commitment to student access and success?

Finley continues, “We are going to suggestion personal and social responsibility and experiences that encourage the development of these outcomes, those aren’t fluffy things. Those are not just additional things. Those are the crucial things. They provide essential skills for student success.

Chancellor Hadddon begins. I look around the room and find the three general aides placed around the room. One at the front. One in the back middle. One is the back left. I wonder if the placement was purposeful, for security. Surely.

Haddon shows slides that speak to the commitment Rutgers-Camden has for the local community. According to Chancellor Haddon: 436,500 hours spent by Rutgers-Camden students on community service during AY 16-17. 74%: Civic Scholars (Rutgers students) who perform 300 hours of service per year in Camden.

I look across the room. At the table next to me, the former president of St. Lawrence is scrolling through his phone. One table over, the AAC&U president sits in interest. One more table behind, the president of Wagner and the Chair of the AAC&U board of directors takes notes by longhand.

Haddon turns over the mic to Townsend. He starts with a robust good morning. And then asks for a good morning from the audience. And then asks for a better one. I remember he did this same gig when he talked at UNG commencement.

First thing he does is to check if his institution is in the headlines. Townsend continues, “I don’t think I am all that different from you. I am the chancellor of Army university. Our interests and goal are much more aligned than I originally thought when I took on this mission to speak today.”

Talks about the importance of punctuality. Shows a slide titled “Building America’s Army!”

He tells a story about an English professor at UNG who would lock the door when class began.

Describes his work with the world’s largest leadership institution. Rattles off stats:

  • 500,700 soldiers a year—some international, some from other services, some from FBI, CIA.
  • Partnered with 900 colleges and universities through reserve officer training
  • 300,00 cadets in reserve == $300 million in scholarships.
  • 70% of U.S. Army officer corps come from ROTC; 20% from West Point.

Dispels some myth related to student-veterans. Points to Syracuse University survey on student-veterans. One fact from survey: student-veterans less likely to have mental health challenges.

He closes: “The army is happy o take on board people who are not ready for college. The army is not a path of last resort. The military is a profession and a good option for a lot of young people who are not ready to do what you need them to do in your institution.”

At the end of the panel, I coordinate with an aide to approach the General and pitch my project and ask for a face-to-face interview.

I talk with the General. He agrees to a face to face interview in February.


AAC&U Annual Meeting

Atlanta, Georgia. Hyatt Regency. Overcast skies. 47 degrees. A January morning. Midweek.

I live 56 miles away from the Hyatt. I needed to be here at 8:45am. I left my house at 6am and arrived 12 minutes early. Traffic.

The 105th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges & Universities is here in Atlanta. Thanks to the generous funding of the Office of Research and Engagement and the Center for Teaching, Learning, and Leadership at UNG, I received funding to make my way 56 miles down the road and learn with my colleagues about assessment of undergraduate learning and celebrate our collective commitment to liberal arts education.

Like many conferences, AAC&U offers a variety of workshops and symposia leading into the full, traditional, conference. Last year, I attended a pre-meeting symposium on civic engagement.

This year I am learning more about the VALUE rubrics in a pre-meeting symposium titled “Is There a Rubric for That? A Decade of VALUE and the Future of Higher Education.”

The Executive Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs with the University System of Georgia, Dr. Tristan Denley, delivered a welcome. That’s my boss’s boss’s boss’s boss. He came off the stage. Moved to the side to check his phone. And I went up and introduced myself.


Back to the symposium, Lynn Pasquerella, President of AAC&U, delivered her remarks. She provided context in which the VALUE rubrics arose, namely in response to the 2006 Spellings Report. She turned the mic over to Terrel Rhodes who works on the VALUE rubrics with AAC&U who welcomed us to this specific section of my symposium titled “In the Beginning: A LEAP of Faith”—as a spiritual person who has also spent a lot of time watching Indiana Jones: The Last Crusade with my 8-year old son, I love the title. I’m in.

Dan Berrett, senior editor at the Chronicle of Higher Education, moderated the discussion with six panelists on the VALUE’s impetus: Trudy Banta, Johnnella Butler, George Kuh, Terrel Rhodes, Carol Geary Schneider, and Jamienne Studley. Dan started with a big, fun question: why does assessment matter?

The conversation flowed along for the 90-minute discussion.

I appreciated a point George Kuh made a about midway through. He said a current challenge is making assessment data—particularly data from the National Survey of Student Engagement— “Palatable, interesting and useful for constituents you want to reach.” Kuh’s point pushed the conversation toward public engagement. The assessment tools offered through AAC&U are for improving undergraduate learning but also for shifting the broad, public narrative about student learning. However, Kuh said a challenge is communicating this data to media outlets and helping my mom, dad, my grandma, and the person who drops off my mail and the dancer who teaches my daughter ballet what all our cool data means. Well, he didn’t point to my people. But the idea holds. We need to talk about our assessment and our assessment findings with all our stakeholders.

This large, contextual conversation centered on the VALUE rubrics provided me with important talking points for me to use when bringing these VALUE rubrics before my colleagues. This week, I received an email from the chair of the University general education committee. It’s time to assess area A1, I learned. Inside A1 sit English 1101 and English 1102. Collectively, these two classes constitute our first-year composition sequence. Which I oversee. With the support of the Department Chair, I formed an ad hoc committee as the gen ed committee asked. In the Fall, we will begin assessing FYC. I appreciate that the chair of the gen ed committee wants our ad hoc committee to build our own rubric. And I want this rubric to be, even if adjusted slightly for our unique institutional context, the VALUE rubric on written communication.





Embracing This Now


Saturday morning. Yoga class at the YMCA. The instructor welcomes us, invites us to stand at the top of our mats, invites us to feel the four corners of our feet rooted into the mat, invites us to face our palms outward and to slow our breath. And the instructor invites us to give ourselves this time and to leave the worries of the world & mind off the mat—just for this hour give ourselves this time.

So I did, that Saturday.

So I will this Christmas Eve. And also Christmas day.

The Text

Monday evening. I sit at my laptop. My father-in-law several feet from me watching It’s a Wonderful Life. My mother-in-law several feet from me wrapping presents at the kitchen counter. The tree sending out its yellow light. My wife peeling off price tags.

And here I sit. Rooted in this time and space I am giving myself.

Forgetting for This Now that our minivan needs four new tires. That the driver window makes an obnoxious screeching noise when we roll it up and the passenger side door pops loudly—ever so often—when we try to open the door.  The tires and the window and the door will be there Wednesday. They don’t serve me in This Now.

Several feet from me, in the back guest bedroom, my children sleep. One in a crib, sucking his thumb, his red wavy hair launching itself from his head. The other two, in a queen bed together, in matching Mickey Mouse pjs, rolling into a deep sleep.

And here I sit. At the kitchen table where in ten hours the family will gather for Christmas Day brunch. I hear my mother-in-law working on something in the kitchen. My father-in-law has left the Jimmy Stewart classic, though the movie plays on.

From the roof, I hear a thuuuuump

Forgetting for This Now that I have 90,000 words due to my publisher by March. That I have authored 50,000 of these words but have run out of steam and worry about finding the energy to see the project to the end. Forgetting for This Now that I have a revision due for a book chapter, that I am waiting reviewer feedback for an article that is already tainted with a straight desk rejection from another outlet, that I am awaiting feedback on an edited collection proposal that is already tainted with a rejection from another outlet. The writing and rewriting can wait. They don’t serve me in This Now.

In This Now, my wife is one foot from me stuffing a doll and accessories into a burlap bag. I see make-up items for my daughter sitting next to my laptop. In This Now, I feel my stomach full of coffee and pastries. In This Now, my children sleep peacefully, spurred to bed with promises of Santa.

From the chimney, I hear a rattle

Forgetting for This Now that my mom is battling a degenerating back. That she is in such pain that my wife and I are hesitant to bring our crazy young kids around her. That she calls expressing sorrow that she cannot babysit, cannot lift our little dude in and out of his crib. I’ll put my mom’s back to the side. Come to it later. I can’t control it and I choose to sit here in This Now.

In This Now, my father-in-law has returned to the Jimmy Stewart movie. My mother-in-law has left her wrapping and it busy over the stove. My wife is placing a bow on the second burlap sack.

From the fireplace, I see a boot

In This Now, my three young children are suspended in a magical space between Christmas Eve and Christmas Day. Drifting in this space as the adults labor and prepare. As we all wait full of expectations for what will come.

From the fireplace, a boot and a figure and a sack. Red and white. I see

In This Now, my wife’s voice pulls me from the fireplace. My eyes turn to find her standing in the hallway. She has completed her work. Her beauty warm in the darkened space. A corona of kindness radiating from her presence, pushing against the dark. She has taken out her contacts, glasses perched on her nose, her hair pulled back. She calls me away from my screen and to bed. I take out my earbuds. Step away from my screen. Walk toward her. From behind I hear him work and arrange the presents.

So to bed. As This Now carries forward to the magical space between Eve and Day, a space my children already inhabit and to which I will soon join them.

I leave him to his work with the presents, hearing him eat the cookies my daughter left.

Thankful that tomorrow I can choose This Now again, that I can choose to bring with me that which is needed at this moment and to leave that which is out outside of this space.

My minivan can wait, so can my writing, so can the worry over my mom’s back.

For Now, I am fully here.

From the roof, I feel a lurch.

New Orleans and Student Learning

With the rattling sounds of Dr. John’s “I Walk on Guilded Splinters” moving through my head, I navigated the grid of New Orleans’ streets and even attended a few sessions at the annual meeting of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges. SACS is one of six regional accreditation organizations. They oversee 13,000 public and private institutions, ranging from preschool to higher ed. My university, the University of North Georgia, reports to SACS.

This is my first time at the annual meeting.

Like my experience at the AAC&U annual meeting, I felt a little out of place here. I’m a couple of notches down the ladder of power than most in attendance. My boss’s, boss’s, boss’s, boss is here for example. That’s the provost of the whole university system. And not delivering a big keynote. Just on a panel at a time in the middle of the day.

It’s mainly a coat and tie conference. I recognize some of my comp/rhet folk here. And they are decked out in suits delivering a talk on student engagement in the writing center.

The exposition hall is not full of Bedford, Pearson, Norton, and other publishers. The expo hall looks like Silicon Valley packaged for higher ed. Young entrepreneurs hawking software packages, bioscan data protection, apps for tracking data. All kinds of start-ups who are not targeting an associate professor like me but my university system provost. Ever wonder where these new initiatives from the upper admins come from? Probably a conference like this.

None of this is a critique. It’s just a different world. But still a conference. A large cavernous conference center—like a casino—no windows, clocks, no easy entrance or exit or easy access to bathrooms and a water foundation and carpet stretching off to infinity.

I sat in on a wonderful session co-offered by Kate McConnell with the AAC&U and Jillian Kinzie Center with the Postsecondary Research, Indiana University.

They were pitching the VALUE Institute. Institutions voluntarily sign up for the Institute to score student work in one of 7 different categories in which AAC&U has created a VALUE rubric:

  • Written communication
  • Quantitative literacy
  • Critical thinking
  • Civic engagement
  • Ethical reasoning
  • Intercultural knowledge and competence
  • Global learning

In total, AAC&U has created 16 VALUE rubrics all available as free download. VALUE = Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education.

The VALUE Institute, a partnership between AAC&U and the Center for Postsecondary Research, collects 100 artifacts (i.e., samples of student work). They also collect demographic information and some information about the assignment/course/source of the work. These artifacts are scored and participating institutions receive data and reports for benchmarking student learning.

The Institute is based on the success of the VALUE Initiative, which ran through 2017. In this pilot-project of sorts, 92 institutions submitted 29k pieces of student work. Upon this work, AACU published On Solid Ground, which shared results from first 2 years of VALUE Initiative data collection.

According to the VALUE Institute’s website, fees and details are as follows

Details About VALUE Institute Participation 2018–2019

Registration: October 15, 2018 – February 22, 2019

Administration Scope: Institutions may choose to assess between 1 and 7 learning outcomes/rubrics, with a maximum of 100 artifacts scored per outcome

Fee for Basic Level: (one outcome & 100 artifacts):$6,000

Basic Level Includes: sampling plan guidance, access to digital platform for submitting student artifacts, selection of one learning outcome with upload of 100 artifacts, scoring of all artifacts by certified VALUE scorers, reporting templates for local reporting, nationwide benchmark reports for context and comparison.

Fee for Each Additional Outcome: $4,000

A decision to opt into this Institute is way above my pay-grade. And UNG is currently overhauling some key general education courses. So the Institute doesn’t align with our local context.

But I have long valued the work of both AAC&U and the Center for Postsecondary Research. I admire the VALUE rubrics and the context in which they were created. And I value authentic assessment of student-learning.

This is an admirable approach to learning more about our students and our teaching and our learning.

Dr. John, running chicken bones through his fingers in contemplative silence, his foot tapping out a beat, might even approve.

Jazz and College Sports

Below is an excerpt from the 5th chapter of my book, The Embodied Playbook: Writing Practices of Student-AthletesThis chapter follows closely on the heels of chapter 4 and offers strategies for working with student-athlete writers. In this chapter, I draw on theories of jazz improvisation, an artistic talent that, like sports, invites the spontaneous coordination of bodies and spaces in line with written text. The first few pages of chapter 5 read, roughly, as follows:

The Jazzy, Creative, Collaborative Writing Practices of College Sports

In his autobiography, the great trumpeter Miles Davis (1989) describes the recording sessions of his 1970 album Bitches Brew, an album heavily inspired by the rock ‘n roll zeitgeist of the 60s with long tracks of frenzied, sonic energy: “What we did on Bitches Brew you couldn’t ever write down for an orchestra to play. That’s why I didn’t write it all out, not because I didn’t know what I wanted; I knew that what I wanted would come out of a process and not some prearranged shit. This session was about improvisation, and that’s what makes jazz so fabulous” (300). Davis’s strong nod toward improvisation over scripted performance recognizes a hallmark of jazz and illustrates the creative, collaborative freedom of jazz. During moments of improvisation, the soloist is simultaneously alone with notes and an instrument yet most commonly a part of a quartet or quintet playing before a live audience. At once, the solo is fluid and capricious yet woven into a tight tapestry of chords and melodies and harmonies. At once, the solo is flowing effortlessly, yet the soloist’s body exerts itself greatly, fingers flying across an instrument, the bounce and tap of the foot in time to the rhythm section. As I quoted in the epigraph, jazz’s emphasis on collaboration and bodily movement to an unfolding text leads James Lincoln Collier (1993) to draw parallels between jazz and athletics. Like athletics, jazz is embodied action where a body in tandem with an instrument delivers written text and where this textual delivery is directly reliant on the physical capabilities of the body. Both athletics and jazz capture mind-body collaborative creation in ever-changing circumstances.

Jazz improvisation happens in a cycle, a fixed form foundation laid first by the rhythm section and then the harmony. The rhythm section—often the bass and drums—set a fix chord progression, and the soloist places moments of improvisational beauty gently set on top of the rhythm. The soloist plays on top of the fixed layer. Without descending too deeply into music theory, to blow a solo fitting with a rhythm changing from number to number, the soloist works within a tight structure such as the twelve-bar or thirty-two bar AABA. Within this structure, improvising can be a variance on a common melody or modal or harmonic improvising. In Thinking in Jazz: The Infinite Art of Improvisation, ethnomusicologist Paul F. Berliner (1994) constructs one of the more capacious discussion of this sonic performance delivered by the musician “spontaneously and intuitively” (2). In his section “Cultivating the Soloist’s Skills,” Berliner describes a soloist’s training: “they formulate melodies by ear, kinetically (by hand), and through abstract visualization in relation to the sounds of each piece’s underlying harmony” (159). This mind-body fusion drives thinking in jazz—to riff on Berliner’s title— and facilitates the learning and performance of improvising. He writes, “the ideas that soloists realize during performance depend as much on the body’s own actions as on the body’s synchronous response to the mind. The body can take momentary control over particular activities . . . while the mind shifts its focus to the next ideas” (190). Because of the importance of the body and mind sharing tasks during cognitive performance, many musicians go to great physical lengths to train, modify, or alter their bodies for performance: training in dance and yoga, practicing relaxation techniques, regulating diet, imbibing in drugs. Berliner writes of one trumpeter who asked a dentist to file down and “slightly separate his own front teeth in the hope that this would ‘free up’ his air stream” (Berliner, 1994, 119).

Scholars across a wide-range of disciplines have molded jazz improvisation into a springboard for harnessing productivity in organizations largely because of jazz’s emphasis on collaborative, bodily creativity . . . In this chapter, I argue the cognitive processes of spatial orientation, haptic communication, and scaffolded situation undergird the learning of scripted plays, but the embodied enactment of these plays is analogous to the characteristics of jazz improvisation Barrett (1998) extends to learning organization and Boquet and Eodice (2008) extend to working with writers. Learning scripted plays looks a whole lot like the jazzy, creative, and collaborative model of learning extended to various organizations.